French citizenship For Members

The ultimate guide for how to get French citizenship

The Local France
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The ultimate guide for how to get French citizenship
Please note - you don't get the president at all citizenship ceremonies. Photo: AFP

Getting French citizenship gives plenty of advantages but it is not a quick or easy process. Here's everything you need to know about how to apply and the hurdles you will have to overcome.


The positive side of this would be that you would gain full and unlimited rights to remain in France, plus - as a citizen of the EU - the right to live and work in any of the 26 other EU countries.

QUIZ: Do you know France well enough to become French?


But the process itself is not a simple one.

Who is eligible?

There are two main routes to applying for citizenship; through residency or through marriage. Although it's also possible to apply through family ties, through being born in France or through military service.


If you are applying through residency you need to have been resident in France for at least five years.That can be reduced to two years if you have completed postgraduate studies at a French university.

Those applying via residency will also need to prove they can speak French, they have an adequate knowledge of France, its culture, history and politics and also show they have integrated into and appreciate the French way of life. The language requirements was previously B1 level, but the new immigration law raises that to B2 level - full details here.

They will need to show they have a clean criminal record (for those who have less than 10 years residence in France) and that their tax payments are up to date, including tax return notices for the three years prior to filing the application for French citizenship. They will also need to prove they are financially sustainable. In other words they have a job or some other form of income.


If you are applying through marriage you need to have been married for four years, but do not need to be living in France. 

If you have children born in France you can apply for citizenship on their behalf once they turn 13, and if you get citizenship your children are also given citizenship.

When are children born in France eligible for French citizenship?


If you have a parent who was a French citizen at the time of your birth, you can obtain citizenship through ancestry. If you apply this way you will need full documentation for yourself and your French parent, and they will also need to prove that that have maintained some 'connection' with France in the past 50 years - this could be evidence of their residency in France, registration with a French consulate or a voter registration to show they have voted in French elections.

Find full details of the ancestry route HERE.



There are some other less common ways to get citizenship. One is to join the French Foreign Legion, as anyone who serves five years in the Legion or who is injured on active service qualifies for citizenship (although you might want to check out what their training involves first) and the other is to perform an outstanding service for France.

Some people who have achieved something superb are offered French nationality and foreigners who worked on the frontline during the Covid pandemic were offered fast-track citizenship


What do I need to do

If you're living in France, applications are decided by your local préfecturre. But since February 6th 2023, you submit your application via an online portal - full details HERE

As with all French bureaucratic processes, you will need a dossier of supporting documents to go with your application.

The exact documents you will need vary depending on your situation - the best thing to do is head to the French government naturalisation simulator, which will take you through a series of questions about your personal circumstances and then provide you with a downloadable list of the documents you will need. 

For residency applications you will usually need;

  • The completed application for citizenship called the "demande d'acquisition de la nationalité francaise"
  • Copy of your passport
  • A newly issued birth certificate copy
  • Copies of your parents' birth or death certificates or marriage certificates or divorce decree IF these are showing the full details of the date and place of birth.
  • Rental agreement or proof of home ownership in France
  • Last three tax returns
  • December and January payslips from the last three years (or other proof of financial means if you are not working)
  • Certificate to show you have B2 level of French (unless you have studied in a French school or University, or have a diploma from a French speaking country) issued within the last two years

People applying via marriage or family will need marriage/birth certificates.

Documents not in French may need translating and must be done by a certified translator - find out more about the rules of certified translation here.

How long does it take?

It's not a quick process - the average length of time from application to citizenship is between 18 months and two years, but it varies depending on where you are in the country.

You submit all your paperwork via the online portal, and then you can use your online account to check the status of your application, and whether your préfecture has requested any extra documents or further details.

Once your dossier is approved, you will be summoned to an in-person interview at your local préfecture (or French consulate if you are applying from outside France).

Here you will be required to demonstrate a reasonable knowledge of France and its culture and values and also show that you have a genuine commitment to France.

It's not enough to say that you're applying just because you want to go in the shorter passport queue, you need to demonstrate that you genuinely value France, want to become French and are prepared to adhere to French values.

The interviews themselves vary from place to place and interviewer to interviewer - some people report a fairly simple process and a short chat, others are grilled on every aspect of France's history and culture so it's best to be prepared and read up on the Livret de Citoyen (citizens booklet) - which you can download here.

Naturally, the interview will be in French.

READ ALSO 10 reasons why you should consider becoming French


How good does my French need to be?

You will need to provide a certificate showing that you have a formal language qualification - which for most people will require taking a certified language test with an official provider.

The level was previously B1 - described as "intermediate", so as "a person who is able to handle day-to-day matters in work, school and leisure" - but France's new immigration law raises that to B2, which is the more advanced intermediate level.

The language rules were toughed up in 2020 with a requirement for a written test in addition to the previous speaking, listening and reading tests. The exemption for over 60s has also been removed. 

READ ALSO: TEST: Is your level of French good enough for citizenship and residency?

How much does it cost?

The official application costs just a €55 timbre fiscal, but the real cost is likely to be much higher taking into account the cost of getting certified translations of all your documents, ordering copies of new documents and taking a language test if required.

For most people the cost will be at least €200 in total, more if you need a lot of documents translating or you need extra French classes. 

Can I be turned down for citizenship?

Yes, it's not just a question of ticking the right boxes, authorities can and will turn you down if they feel you are not truly committed to the French way of life or are just applying for administrative convenience.

In total in 2018 around 30 percent of citizenship applications were refused, many of them on language grounds but in 2019 a nurse was turned down because she had worked too many hours - and therefore broken the Labour Code - and in 2018 an Algerian woman was denied citizenship because she refused to shake the male official's hand.

If you are rejected you will be informed either in person or by registered letter, and the préfecture must give a reason for refusal.

If you feel that is unfair you can challenge the decision at the Tribunal de Nantes.

If you are accepted for citizenship you are invited to a ceremony where you will be given a brief presentation on the French way of life, awarded your certificate and invited to sing La Marseillaise (in a group, no solo performances are required, thankfully).


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