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EXPLAINED: How does the French Senate work?

The role of the French Senate is frequently misunderstood outside France because - unlike its equivalents in countries including the US - its powers have several big limitations. Here's how France's second chamber works, how senators are elected and how much power it actually has.

EXPLAINED: How does the French Senate work?
Photo: Thomas Samson/AFP

France’s second chamber plays an important role in the democratic process, but its powers do have limitations.

The short definition of the Sénat is that it is – along with the Asemblée nationale – one of two chambers of the French Parliament and it acts as the check and balance on the power of MPs (députés) in the Assembly.

The Senate’s job is to review Bills submitted by the government of the day, or by the Assembly. It also watches over the Government to make sure that any enacted laws are implemented properly. Senators can – and do – introduce bills of their own, but it is the Assembly that is the real driving force of government.

Importantly, the Constitution of the Fifth Republic charges the Senate with one additional role: to represent the local authorities of the Republic – municipalities, départements and regions – in metropolitan France and overseas.

I’ve never voted for my Senator, so are they elected?

Yes, they are – but not directly by voters.

Each of the 348 Senators are elected by 162,000 officials known as grands électeurs – who themselves are made up of elected regional councillors, département councillors, mayors, municipal councillors in larger communes and MPs in the National Assembly.

The current French senate president is Gérard Larcher. Photo by Bertrand GUAY / AFP

Senators serve a six-year term, with 50 percent of its seats up for election every three years. The number of Senators per constituency depends on the population, so the city of Paris has 12 Senators, the Nord départment 11, and the sparsely-populated département of Lozère just one.

The average age of Senators at the beginning of their term, according to official figures, is 61. A total 68 percent are men, and 315 of the 348 officials represent metropolitan France. The remaining 33 represent French citizens living abroad, including overseas territories and departments.

That’s a small pool of voters…

That’s true. And there’s a bias towards rural areas which means the Senate, on the whole, remains on the centre-right of France’s political spectrum. It has leaned left only once since the foundation of the Fifth Republic in 1958 – for the three-year period between 2011-2014. 

And what do they do, exactly?

Primarily, Senators examine government bills, and propose changes and additions before they become law. 

In common with upper houses of Parliament in other countries, fact-finding missions, hearings and debates are their weapons of political choice – along with plenary sessions and committees.

Senators can – and do – table bills of their own, though the government has priority in setting the agenda for both the National Assembly and the Senate. However, two weeks per month are reserved for an agenda chosen by the Senate, per Article 48 of the Constitution.

One sitting day per month is reserved for an agenda chosen by opposition or minority political groups.

Because both houses can make changes to a bill before it becomes law, it usually takes several readings before a consensus is reached. 

The usual process is that a bill goes before the Assemblée nationale first and, if it is passed, then goes to the Senate which may make amendments. The amendments then go back to the Assemblée nationale for further discussion and the government (if it is a government-sponsored bill) tries to find a solution that will be accepted by both houses.

If no agreement is reached on a key piece of legislation, the government can step in and give the final decision on a bill to the Assemblée nationale rather than the Senate – but often bills that don’t have the support of both houses are withdrawn.

Government bills may receive their first reading in either the Senate or the National Assembly. But the government’s financial bills, including those that concern funding of the social security system, must first be tabled before the National Assembly.

Given its special role under the Constitution, bills concerning territorial organisation or representation of French citizens living outside France must first be tabled before the Senate.

Senate amendments 

Senate amendments sound dull, but they’re often the things that make headlines outside of France.

In 2021, France’s Senate caused global uproar when it proposed a ban on the Muslim headscarf in an amendment to the government’s anti-separatism law.

The government’s Bill had made no mention of the headscarf until the amendment was added, and this was not the first time that right-wing senators had attempted to add similar amendments.

In the end, the Senate’s amendment was struck down in the Assemblée nationale and the anti-separatism bill was passed without it – but not before many global commentators, misunderstanding the role and power of the Senate, had reported that France was about to ban the hijab.

Anything else?

The Senate also monitors the administration’s actions and publishes numerous reports each year on various topics. 

Every week, Senators on committees question Ministers, and individual Senators can address written questions to Ministers. Responses are usually expected within a month.

According to the website, senators put about 7,000 questions a year to the government. They also table some 8,000 amendments.

There’s one more thing…

Although being president of the Senate is not a particularly high-profile, it does have one very important aspect. 

The president of the Senate will step in as acting President of France in case of death, resignation or removal from office (for health reasons) until a new election can be held. 

This last happened in April 1974, when Georges Pompidou died while in office. President of the Senate Alain Poher was acting President until Valéry Giscard d’Estaing was elected a month later.

Poher had also previously temporarily held the role when Charles de Gaulle resigned in 1969. 

It is therefore considered the second highest office in the Republic. The Speaker chairs the bureau of the Senate and the Chairperson’s Conference and has important constitutional powers.

The Speaker can appoint members to the powerful Constitutional Council and may refer matters to it if it is feared they breach laws or treaties, or run contrary to the Constitution.

The current holder of the post is Gérard Larcher. He has held the position since 2014 and his name came up in a lot of articles when President Emmanuel Macron was diagnosed with Covid in 2021. Fortunately, the president made a full recovery. 

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French Prime Minister Macron doubles down on pension age as strikes loom

France's prime minister on Sunday ruled out backtracking on a plan to raise the retirement age as unions prepared for another day of mass protests against the contested reform.

French Prime Minister Macron doubles down on pension age as strikes loom

An increase in the minimum retirement age to 64 from the current 62 is part of a flagship reform package pushed by President Emmanuel Macron to ensure the future financing of France’s pensions system.

After union protests against the change brought out over a million people into the streets on January 19, the government signalled there was wiggle room on some measures, including the number of contributing years needed to qualify for a full pension, special deals for people who started working very young, and provisions for mothers who interrupted their careers to look after their children.

But the headline age limit of 64 was not up for discussion, Prime Minister Elisabeth Borne said Sunday.

“This is now non-negotiable,” she told the FranceInfo broadcaster.

While unions have welcomed the government’s readiness for negotiation on parts of the plan, they say the proposed 64-year rule has to go.

Calling the reform “unfair” France’s eight major unions, in a rare show of unity, said they hoped to “mobilise even more massively” on Tuesday, their next scheduled protest day, than at the showing earlier this month.

“Even more people”

“It’s looking like there will be even more people”, said Celine Verzeletti, member of the hardleft union CGT’s confederation leadership.

Pointing to opinion polls, Laurent Berger, head of the moderate CFDT union, said that “the people disagree strongly with the project, and that view is gaining ground”.

It would be “a mistake” for the government to ignore the mobilisation, he warned.

Unions and the government both see Tuesday’s protests as a major test.

Some 200 protests are being organised countrywide, with a big march planned for Paris, culminating in a demonstration outside the National Assembly where parliamentary commissions are to start examining the draft law on Monday.

The leftwing opposition has submitted more than 7,000 amendments to the draft in a bid to slow its path through parliament.

Macron’s allies are short of an absolute majority in parliament and will need votes from conservatives to approve the pensions plan.

The government has the option of forcing the bill through without a vote under special constitutional powers, but at the risk of triggering a vote of no confidence, and possibly new parliamentary elections.

In addition to protest marches, unions have called for widespread strike action for Tuesday, with railway services and public transport expected to be heavily affected.

Stoppages are also expected in schools and administrations, with some local authorities having already announced closures of public spaces such as sports stadiums.

Some unions have called for further strike action in February, including at commercial ports, refineries and power stations.

Some observers said the unions are playing for high stakes, and any slackening of support Tuesday could be fatal for their momentum.

“They have placed the bar high,” said Dominique Andolfatto, a professor for political science. “They can’t afford any missteps.”