For members


Gendarmes to ‘policiers’ – who does what in the French police force?

Anyone used to a single national police force may struggle with the many different types of officer in France, so here is our guide to who does what in the French police.

Gendarmes to 'policiers' - who does what in the French police force?
All photos: AFP

If you’ve spent time in France you will have noticed that there are several different types of police, all of whom wear different uniforms. For the non-native figuring out which officers do what can be pretty confusing, so here’s a guide to the different types of police in France.

Police Municipale

This is the lowest level of police. The police municipale come under the responsibility of the town’s mayor and local council. A policier municipal – municipal police officer – usually tackles minor issues: small illegal constructions like a wall, stray dogs, parking tickets or low-level neighbour disputes.

Criminal complaints (rape, robbery etc) go beyond their powers. What they can do is report offences to the prosecutor, who will then transfer the file to the police nationale or to the gendarmerie.

READER QUESTION: Do the French police have the right to see my ID?

They have the power of arrest, but must deliver any arrested person to a police nationale or gendarme.

Municipal police officers are allowed to carry weapons, but it is down to the mayor and the local authorities to decide whether they do. Following the 2015 Paris terror attacks, the number of armed municipal officers skyrocketed. Today, more than half of French policiers municipaux bear arms.

READ ALSO Emergency in France: Who to call and what to say

Police municipale generally tackle lower level issues like anti-social behaviour or parking issues. Photo: AFP

Police Nationale

Officers from la police nationale are classed as civil servants, just like the municipal police.

They can deal with criminal complaints and are divided in a number of specialised services, such as la brigade des moeurs (vice squad) or la brigade financière (fraud squad).

If you ever need to make a complaint of a crime, you are allowed to do it anywhere in France, whether the offence took place 200 metres or 200 kilometres away from the police station where you report. This principle is called guichet unique.

Officers from both the police municipale and the police nationale are allowed to go on strike.


CRS is the shortened form of Compagnies Républicaines de Sécurité (Republican Security Companies) which are a branch of the French police nationale.

These are the officers that you will see policing any major demonstration in France, often wearing riot gear and carrying shields.

They were on the frontline during ‘yellow vest’ protests and there was controversy over their tactics after a high number of injuries suffered by demonstrators. They mainly operate on major demonstrations and events where there is a potential for problems with public order.

They can also watch embassies and similar sensitive locations.

CRS officers are mobile police, meaning they are dispatched where they are needed and do not only operate in the area where they live.

READ ALSO How the ‘yellow vests’ made France have a national conversation about police violence

Officers seen on big demonstrations are likely to be members of the CRS. Photo: AFP

Gendarmerie Nationale

Gendarmes are part of the French military. They live in barracks and work shifts. As members of the military, they are not allowed to go on strike, which guarantees France a minimum service in times of civil protest or industrial dispute.

Unlike the police nationale, French gendarmerie is not divided into specialist services. Therefore, gendarmes usually treat cases from the moment they begin until they are judged, and are overall quite versatile.

They can be regulating traffic in the hours following a serious car crash and then be tackling a burglary moments later.

The gendarmerie also contains the Brigade Motorisée, or the traffic police on motorbikes who are a frequent sight on French roads. 

Gendarmerie de Montagne/Haut Montagne

In France the mountain rescue teams are also part of the police and a total of 260 gendarmes with very specialist skills are employed nationwide to perform rescues when people become lost or injured in the mountains. They also perform law enforcement duties and safety/accident prevention duties.

In the Massif Central and the Vosges they are known as the Gendarmerie de Montagne and in the Alps and the Pyrenees, as well as the mountains on the islands of Réunion and Corsica, they are known as the Gendarmerie de Haut Montage.

Inspection Générale de la Police Nationale

And overseeing all those is the Inspection Générale de la Police Nationale (national inspectorate of police) generally known as the IGPN. These are the people who police the police and investigate allegations of corruption, incompetence, police brutality and general poor behaviour from France’s police forces. If you have a complaint about French police, you can report it online here.

The inspectors themselves frequently come in for criticism that they are not sufficiently impartial – their report into the behaviour of officers leading up to the death of Steve Canico in summer 2019 was widely judged to be far too sympathetic to the police and the sarcastic hashtag #SelonIGPN (according to the IGPN) was trending on Twitter as people shared ludicrous stories that only the credulous would believe.

Soldiers from Opération Sentinelle have been a regular sights on the streets since 2015. Photo: AFP

Opération sentinelle

Not actually part of the police force, but a sight you are likely to see in French cities, at tourist sites, places of worship and major transport interchanges since 2015.

Part of the French military, they are always wearing battle fatigues and carrying assault riffles. You can join the French military from the age of 18 so many of these sentinelles, as they are known, will be teenagers, hence the frequent tourist question ‘why is there a child with a massive gun next to the Eiffel Tower?’

The Opération Sentinelle (Sentry Operation) was deployed on French soil in the wake of the Charlie Hebdo terror attacks, back in January 2015. The operation was reinforced in November the same year, following the Paris attacks. The soldiers involved are picked from many different units within the French military.

Member comments

  1. Interesting and informative article on the French policing forces. What is the history behind the military and civilian split? Also, does the Guarde Republicane fit into law enforcement somewhere?

Log in here to leave a comment.
Become a Member to leave a comment.


New French State aid to help older people make home improvements

A new accessibility scheme recently announced by the French government gives grants for home improvements such as installing a stair lift or widening a doorframe to allow wheelchair access - here is how you could benefit.

New French State aid to help older people make home improvements

According to a recent survey in France, the vast majority of retired people expressed a desire to stay in their homes long-term, rather than entering a care facility.

While there are several schemes by the French government to provide assistance for renovating homes in order to make them more accessible for elderly people, the newly announced “MaPrimeAdapt” seeks to streamline the process.

When was it announced?

MaPrimeAdapt was part of President Emmanuel Macron’s re-election campaign, with plans for it first announced by the president last November.

Most recently, the government aid was earmarked to receive funding in the upcoming 2023 budget, which also hopes to increase the number of nursing home employees, as well as boost public funding for care centres.

The budget is set to allocate €35 million to the National Housing Agency (ANAH) in 2023. In response, the ministry of housing said to Capital France that one of their top priorities is “a single aid for the adaptation of housing to ageing” that would replace several existing government subsidies.

What is the goal of Ma Prime Adapt?

Similar to Ma Prime Renov, this programme hopes to provide additional funding for home refurbishment.

But while Ma Prime Renov focuses on environmentally friendly home adaptations, Ma Prime Adapt aims to make it simpler for older people or those with disabilities to refurbish their homes in order to maintain their autonomy and avoid falls.  

The French government also aims to reduce the number of fatal or disabling falls of people aged 65 by at least 20 percent by 2024, and by 2032, the goal is for at least 680,000 homes to be adapted, particularly those of low-income older people.

Who can benefit?

According to reporting by Le Monde, this aid is not solely reserved for people who already have decreased mobility. 

Instead, it is intended for older people generally. When applying, the applicant must be able to demonstrate that they are an independent retiree and need (this could be based on income, age, health, etc) to adapt their housing in order to make it more accessible.

The amount of assistance offered will be means-tested based on financial status.

What types of work would qualify?

Some examples of work that might qualify for assistance might be:

  • adapting the bathroom (for example, adding grab bars or enlarging the door)
  • replacing the bathtub with a shower
  • installing a bathtub with a door
  • installing a stair lift
  • adding access ramps to the home

The benefit is not limited to those options – any project that aims to increase home accessibility for a senior could qualify, as long as it is not simply aesthetic-focused.

Can it be combined with Ma Prime Renov?

They have different criteria, but Ma Prime Renov and Ma Prime Adapt can be combined in order to provide maximum support to elderly people wishing to adapt and stay in their homes.

How can I apply?

In order to apply, you will be required to meet the conditions stated above, in addition to being able to demonstrate that the housing in question is at least 15 years old and that the amount of work being done would cost at least €1,500.

Keep in mind that the renovation will need to be carried out by a recognised building company or contractor – specifically one with the label “RGE.”

You will be able  toapply for the Ma Prime Adapt aid via France’s National Housing Agency (ANAH). A dedicated website will be created to facilitate the process, with a launch date TBC. 

On the site, you will submit an application form that includes the estimates of the work planned. According to Le Monde, €5,600 will be the maximum amount of aid to be offered, and the cost of work will be capped at €8,000. However, this information has not yet been published by the National Housing Agency. 

What have the other available schemes been?

Currently, retirees in France can apply for the “Habiter facile” scheme from the ANAH (Agence Nationale de l’Habitat), which also helps to finance work that promotes the ability of elderly people to remain in their homes.

“Bien vieillir chez soi” is a similar aid scheme which is offered by the CNAV (social security).

The elderly and disabled can also benefit from tax credits on accessibility or home adaptation work. 

These will likely be replaced by Ma Prime Adapt, which will combine all benefits into one package.