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ENVIRONMENT

France opens up first offshore windfarm – but will more follow?

President Emmanuel Macron inaugurated France’s first offshore windfarm off the coast of Saint-Nazaire on Thursday as he seeks to accelerate renewable energy supply and improve energy security.

France opens up first offshore windfarm - but will more follow?
A turbine in the offshore windfarm near Saint-Nazaire under construction earlier this year. (Photo: Sebastien Salom-Gomis / AFP)

The 80 turbines will enter full service by the end of the year, and Macron has previously set a goal of about 50 offshore windfarms “providing up to 40 gigawatts” in service by 2050.

Following the belated inauguration of the country’s first offshore windfarm, another at Fécamp is due to start generating power in 2023. Sites in Saint-Brieuc, Fécamp and Courseulles-sur-Mer are set to enter service in 2024.

But France has a long way to go to meet the President’s target, and to catch up with its European neighbours. Before the Saint-Nazaire wind farm (‘parc éolien’ – en français), France had only one floating offshore wind farm off the coast of Le Croisic.

At Thursday’s inauguration event, Macron was to set out the “main lines” of a bill to accelerate France’s renewable energy programme, which will be presented to the Council of Ministers on Monday, September 26th.

READ ALSO France generates electricity from offshore wind farm for the first time

There is no doubt that renewable energy production in France is accelerating. On top of the 80 offshore turbines at Saint-Nazaire, just under 9,000 onshore turbines are currently producing electricity in France – eight years ago, around half that number of land-based turbines were operational. 

The first turbines in France were only installed in the 1990s – by which time countries like Germany and Denmark already had large-scale operations in place. 

More turbines would be in operation now in France, but for the lengthy planning process and appeals against projects, which have delayed construction for several years.

Hauts-de-France and Grand-Est, account for 50 percent of the wind-produced power in France. Île-de-France, Provence-Alpes-Côte-d’Azur, and Corsica lag behind the other regions.

READ MORE: Energy shortages: What’s the problem with France’s nuclear industry?

In 2020, wind produced just eight percent of its electricity from wind, behind hydroelectric stations, while nuclear power generated nearly 70 percent of the country’s electricity.

Wind power accounted for 20 percent of electricity generation in Germany and Spain, while the UK was at 30 percent in 2020, Portugal produced 40 percent, and Denmark’s windfarms met 60 percent of the country’s electricity needs.

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ENVIRONMENT

Free worms: How to start composting in France

Wondering how you can start composting in France? Here is what you need to know about the environmentally-friendly way of getting rid of your food waste.

Free worms: How to start composting in France

Composting is about to get a lot more accessible in France, as local authorities will be required to offer households means of sorting biodegradable waste at source.

Starting in January 2024, all local authorities across the country will need to give households a way to compost – whether that be via separate bins for collection, individual or collective composting.

READ MORE: All French households will have to be offered composting bin

But many local authorities already do this, and even if they don’t there’s no need to wait until January 2024 to recycle your kitchen scraps, old flowers and other bio-waste.

Public composting sites

If you’re looking for a shared or public composting site, the first step you can take is to look at the interactive map created by Zero Waste France. You can find it HERE, where you can simply put in your address to see what options are available close to you.

Another option would be to look at the website for your local Mairie (Town Hall) to search for the nearest “composteur de quartier” (neighbourhood composting bin). For those living in the Greater Lyon area, you can consult the interactive map and address log of shared composting bins HERE

In Paris, those looking to compost can use the city’s Town Hall website to see the composting locations listed out by arrondissement and address. If you scroll to the middle of the page then click on your arrondissement number, you will get a list of nearby options.

A screenshot of the dropdown list of composting options in Paris

You will also need to check 

For those living in cities, you might consider joining a community garden if you are looking to use your composting to grow fruits and vegetables, or if you are simply looking for an alternative place to get rid of your compost. To join a community garden (jardin partagé) you must contact the association managing it. In larger cities, like Paris, there might be a waitlist. You can find more information HERE.

Compost individually

It’s easy to get a compost bin for your kitchen to collect your food and biodegradable waste together, but if you actually want to create compost that will go straight onto your garden then you will probably need the help of some worms.

Depending on where you live in France, you might be eligible for a free or reduced price individual worm composting bin. For those living in Paris, you can get a free worm composting bin during one of the city’s distribution campaigns, which are usually announced on the Town Hall’s website. You will also need to attend a short, 45-minute training session to learn how to use the worm composting bin.  

In other parts of France, like the Aix-Marseille-Provence metropolitan area you can order a €10 wooden composter or an individual worm composter on the local authority’s website, found HERE.

If you live in the Greater Lyon area, you can apply for your local town hall to send you composting materials for free by going on THIS website and by providing documents, such as a piece of identification, proof of address, and a photo of your garden.

Many local authorities have similar schemes, so check the situation on a lombricomposteur (worm-composter) with your local mairie.

Where can I get compost for my garden?

If you are looking to get compost, the first place you might consider would be your local landfill or waste disposal centre (déchetterie). Some communes will give away free bags of compost, and others have deals set up where you can bring in your own biodegradable items in exchange for getting a bag of compost.

What are you allowed to compost in France? 

While local authorities might have differing recommendations, on a general level it is recommended that you compost: Kitchen waste – peelings, coffee grounds, paper filters, vegetable tops, and spoiled fruits and vegetables; Garden waste – grass clippings, leaves, and dead flowers; and some household waste – house plants, tissues, paper towels, newspaper, wood ashes, and sawdust.

There are also some things that you might be able to compost, but you should take some additional steps, like hard waste that cannot degrade easily (cabbage cores, bones, branches, fruit pits, egg shells), which should be crushed down beforehand. 

Some localities have specific rules regarding composting meat. In Paris, residents are advised against composting meat and fish, as they can attract rodents.

You should always avoid composting any non-biodegradable synthetic products, like glass, metals, plastics, or synthetic cleaner bags. Many types of diapers (nappies) are not biodegradable, so consider this before attempting to compost them. Any type of wood that has been painted or chemically treated should not be composted, and no chemical products (such as oil) should be composted.

If you are using a vermicomposter (worm composter) should also avoid putting in citrus fruits, garlic and onions.

As for the city of Paris, local authorities recommend not composting dairy products (especially cheese), bread, and meat. 

Why should I consider composting?

There are many benefits to composting. As an individual, composting might save you money by allowing you to avoid buying synthetic fertilisers.

Recycling organic waste also helps to limit pollution. When biodegradable waste is collected with other types of waste and put into landfills, it produces toxic emissions. Composting helps to reduce the toxic gases that are sent into the atmosphere, and in turn reduces pollution.

It also makes us less dependent on landfills and helps to make soil richer and healthier, which aids in water retention. 

Helpful vocabulary

To compost – Composter

A communal composting bin – un composteur collectif

Worm composter or vermicomposter – lombricomposteur

Landfill/ Waste disposal centre – Déchetterie

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