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ENVIRONMENT

France generates electricity from offshore wind farm for the first time

France's electricity grid has received its first ever power generated by an offshore wind farm, as the country looks ahead to what could be a difficult winter.

France generates electricity from offshore wind farm for the first time
Photo by Eric Feferberg / AFP

“The Saint-Nazaire offshore wind farm produced the first megawatt hours from French offshore wind,” said the consortium owning the park and grid operator RTE in a statement.

The Saint-Nazaire offshore park, the first in France to come into service, will eventually have 80 wind turbines, which will be gradually installed by the end of the year. To date, 27 wind turbines have been installed since April.

More offshore windfarms are due to come on stream in the months ahead at Fécamp (Seine-Maritime), which is expected to be operational early next year, followed by installations at Saint-Brieuc (Côtes-d’Armor) and Courseulles-sur-Mer (Calvados).

Europe is the world leader in offshore wind power, but France is lagging well behind much of the field. The UK had the largest offshore generation capacity in 2020, followed by China and Germany, while the first offshore windfarm was installed off the coast of Denmark in 1991.

France has plenty of wind turbines on land – a form of energy that Emmanuel Macron backed during debates before the presidential election when his far-right opponant Marine Le Pen pledged to end all new wind farms and dismantle existing ones.

In an interview with local media last week Macron insisted that France would not be exposed to power outages next winter, despite the fact that many of the country’s nuclear reactors are currently offline for safety reasons. In May, 27 of the country’s 56 nuclear reactors were shut down.

“When we need to, we will get supplies from the European market,” Macron said in an interview published by a number of regional newspapers, despite the tension on European energy market following Russia’s invasion of Ukraine.

Thomas Pellerin-Carlin, director of the Energy Center of the Jacques-Delors Institute, added:  “To say that there is no risk of a power cut in winter is almost always factually false. Especially since 2022 is likely to be the lowest year for nuclear generated power in decades.”

Grid operator RTE warned, in a 2021 report, that France would be at a ‘low point’ in terms of electricity supply security until 2024 because of the “lower availability of the nuclear fleet and the closure of the last coal-fired power stations”.

Meanwhile,  importing electricity is a limited option. “We have 13 gigawatts (GW) interconnection with our neighbours. We are limited by physics, we cannot import more ,” Goldberg said. “Last year, we needed almost all of our imports. This winter, that might not be enough.”

Last year, France quietly relaxed restrictions on the maximum number of operational hours for its remaining coal-fired power stations. Today, the only one still producing power is Cordemais, in Loire-Atlantique, after Saint-Avold, in Moselle was shutdown in March. It could be reopened, if necessary, to supplement the power grid in time for the winter.

RTE could also introduce a number of measures to avoid general powercuts, experts have said. It could pay industrial customers to shut down power to their sites to ease the pressure on the entire network. It could reduce power to the entire network to reduce consumption, or it could introduce rotating load-shedding, by cutting power to certain areas for up to two hours per day in the morning or early evening.

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ENVIRONMENT

Trees to trams: How French cities are adapting to summer heatwaves

The world is heating up, and France is no exception. Here is how the country plans to change the landscape of its cities in order to cope with ever-increasing heatwaves.

Trees to trams: How French cities are adapting to summer heatwaves

While the whole of France is suffering from increasing temperatures, those in cities must prepare to take on an extra dose of heat, due to “heat island effect” which makes urban environments up to 8C hotter than the countryside.

READ MORE: Scientists explain the ‘heat sink’ effect that makes Paris feel like an oven

Météo France reports that the country has suffered at least 43 heat waves have been detected since 1947, but they are becoming more alarming.

“Heat waves are increasing in intensity and frequency because of climate change,” said Robert Vautard, meteorologist and climatologist to Reporterre

They are also becoming more dangerous – Vautard explained that while the earth’s average temperature has increased by 1.5C in the last hundred years, average temperatures during heat waves have spiked even higher, becoming increasingly erratic. 

Coping with warmer temperatures is becoming a necessity, but it is in the big cities where people are sweating the most – Bordeaux, Lyon, Paris, for instance, it can be up to 8C warmer in the city centre than in the suburbs due to the urban “heat sink” effect.

French government spokesperson Olivia Grégoire last week announced that the country has devoted €500 million to encourage urban vegetation projects in order to turn ‘îlots de chaleur‘ (urban heat islands) into ‘îlots de fraicheur‘ (islands of coolness). 

South of France 

In the south of France, cities have always been designed with heat in mind – centuries-old techniques like white-painted buildings, shutters on the windows and narrow, shady streets help residents to stay cool.

Cities like Nice have even employed natural, traditional air conditioning systems – if you walk through the old town, you might notice “openings fitted with iron grills just over the doors” – they allow for fresh, cool air from the street level to come into the inside of the building.

Rural southern French ‘mas’ farmhouses were also built to keep cool, always facing south with very small windows to keep out summer heat.

But on the Côte d’Azur, temperatures are rising faster than the global average. For the rest of the world, warming occurs at 0.2C a decade, but in Côte d’Azur temperatures are increasing around 0.3C every ten years.

During the 2019 heatwave, southern France’s Gallargues-le-Montueux village, located in the Gard département broke heat records when it recorded 45.9C. Warming temperatures will impact the region so much so that it may even warrant a new climate classification in the next 50 years.

All this means that the traditional cooling techniques may not be enough to allow locals to cope with soaring temperatures.

For densely populated Marseille, the city will try to add breathing space between its closely aligned buildings: the objective is that for each urban block, there will be gaps between streets and a changing of the height between these spaces (like hollowing out the base) in order to better allow natural ventilation and airflow.

For wider streets, the city is looking at adding shade coverings over the blocks to keep them cool, and as the city is prone to flooding, grassy areas to plant trees will also be used for water retention, which also has a cooling effect.

In the north

Meanwhile, in northern parts of the country, cities were generally built with the intention to keep heat in, rather than out, meaning that they cope poorly with heatwaves.

Larger windows – a feature that is common in cities like Paris – wide boulevards covered in dark asphalt and roofs made of zinc are all well suited to cooler months, but means cities turn into ovens during a heatwave.

The more green space a city has, the more the temperature falls, so cities like Lille and Paris which are particularly densely populated and lack green space, are engaging in major ‘re-greening’ programmes.

On top of this, all French cities have some challenges in common: monuments historiques, or buildings registered as national heritage sites, where there is a lengthy process to make any changes or alterations that might impact the building or the character of the area.

Then, there is the challenge of the places that people simply do not want to see altered – like the area around the Eiffel Tower, for instance. 

READ MORE: Plan to fell trees near Eiffel Tower causes backlash from residents in French capital

But some cities do have ambitious plans to counter rising temperatures.

Americans might be wondering if this will involve more air conditioning in French buildings – unfortunately, the answer is no: air-con actually makes the heat island effect worse by pumping hot air back out onto the streets (as well as obviously guzzling energy to operate the systems, contributing to the climate change that is at the root of the problem).

Instead, it’s about finding ways to redesign city spaces to mitigate the extreme heat that is here to stay:

Paris plans

Paris’ climate action plan, released in 2018, defines how the densely populated city plans to cope with climate change, particularly its status as a heat island, between 2020 and 2030.

Along with the goal of becoming carbon neutral by 2050, Paris hopes to prepare itself for “long periods of extreme heat,” warning that “the scorching summer of 2003 may well become a “normal” summer in 2050. 

Solar power plants and solar shading – to aid in its carbon neutral goals, the city of Paris hopes to invest in urban solar power plants, and one will be installed in the Bois de Vincennes flower park.

The city wants this ‘solar power plant’ to also incorporate solar shade structures in public places, in order to “combine the benefits of energy production with protection against extreme heat”

Training “energy facilitators” and “eco-managers” – these people would work with stakeholders in individual neighbourhoods to oversee greening projects.

The action plan says they would “keep an eye on vulnerable people during heat waves, facilitate the lending or hiring of property and equipment such as bicycles between residents, manage a mini-urban logistics hub, carry out the pre-collection of certain types of waste or transfer bulky waste items to waste sorting and recovery centres.” 

Cool islands and routes in Paris – The city plans to keep and maintain its interactive map that will show you where to keep and stay cool during periods of extreme heat.

As of 2018, the city had already identified around 700 ‘cool islands,’ like museums, libraries, swimming spots, and green spaces. But, the goal is that by 2030, the City will create or open at least an extra 300.

READ MORE: Climate change: What can we expect future French summers to look like?

Schoolyard oases – Removing asphalt from school yards and increasing green space is also part of the plan.

The city’s plan to build more ‘oases’ will help to create more cool islands. As schoolyards take up over half a million square metres in Paris, this offers a large amount of space that can be radically cooled down. In 2020, the city started with just three schools, and will continue expanding throughout the decade.

New roofs for Paris – Paris’ rooftops are a huge part of the city’s architectural history and identity, but they are also heat conductors. The city of Paris has proposed to that rooftops that are either too steep or facing the wrong direction ought to be  “covered in vegetation or reflective paint” in order to reduce urban heat island effect. 

More trees – Having already added almost 50 hectares of trees during the last climate action plan, Paris has a new goal of increasing its tree canopy by 2 percent – this would mean adding more than 20,000 trees. 

Greening the tramways – Finally, Paris’ tramways will get a facelift by adding grass and getting rid of the heat-soaking concrete beneath the rails

Finally, during heat waves the city will continue using its emergency plan, intended to inform and protect vulnerable people (and the general population) of where and how to stay cool. 

READ MORE: How France plans to ‘heatwave proof’ its cities

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