Donald Trump peddled alternative facts; Eric Zemmour invents history.
On his book tour – a presidential election campaign in all but name – the xenophobic pundit tells his adoring audiences: “I’m going to give you the true history of France and the Republic”.
The true history?
Here, in distilled form, is the History of France, according to Eric Zemmour (who is placed by opinion polls in second or third place in the campaign for the April presidential election).
“France is a country destined by its cultural superiority to be amongst the great countries of the world. Its destiny has been betrayed by internal enemies and undermined by jealous foreigners (especially les Anglo-Saxons). France’s very existence is now threatened by the planned ‘great replacement’ of white people by brown and black people.”
“The greatest figures in French history (before Zemmour) were Joan of Arc, King Louis XIV, Napoleon and Charles de Gaulle. All of them freed France from foreign rule (bad) or subjected foreigners to French rule (good).”
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Zemmour’s history of France is a 21st century version of the Dolchstosslegende – the stab-in-the-back myth – that helped to bring the Nazis to power in Germany in the 1930s. According to that big lie, Germany was not defeated on the battlefield in 1918. It was betrayed by Socialists, liberals and Jews – above all by Jews.
Zemmour, who is of North African Jewish origin, fictionalises the history of France for similar political ends. He claims that French nationalism, French identity, inherent French superiority, have been tarnished in the last century by foreign powers, internal betrayals and – above all – by a conspiracy of historians and politicians to misrepresent events.
In particular, Zemmour is obsessed with World War II – almost as obsessed as, say, the Daily Express.
The British tabloid version of 20th century history is not entirely false but it is distorted by omission. The legend of Britain’s “triumph” in the 1939-1945 war (with a little, vague help from our friends) has reinforced the British belief that we are a chosen people, owed a special place in the world.
Zemmour falsifies the French history of the Second World War because the received version – military failure, official collaboration, shame and gratitude to allies – does not fit his Francocentric world-view. It conflicts with Zemmour’s belief that it is the French who are the chosen people, owed a special place in the world.
Thus, according to Zemmour . . .
The collaborationist Vichy regime from 1940-44 protected “French” Jews; it did not collaborate with the Nazis but preserved the identity and independence of France.
The allied liberation of France in 1944 was “partly” an “invasion” intended to place France under American control. Only De Gaulle’s determination and courage, he says, prevented France from becoming an American colony.
History is messy. Memories are short. Some people are ignorant and easily misled (including many who should know better). Zemmour’s re-written history of WWII – in which both Vichy and De Gaulle play heroic roles – coincides with some facts but tramples or distorts many more.
No, the Vichy regime did not protect French-born Jews. Many Jews survived the war in France because ordinary French people helped them – risking severe punishment by the Vichy regime or by the Nazi invaders.
No, the allied invasion in 1944 had no colonial aims. The Americans were sometimes disrespectful of French sensibilities – and especially De Gaulle’s. France did not become a US cultural or political satellite post-1945.
That was not especially De Gaulle’s doing. Neither did other liberated countries, such as Belgium, the Netherlands and Denmark. Nor did former enemies, like Germany or Italy. Compare and contrast the post-war fate of Poland or Hungary.
Zemmour’s Soviet-like drive to re-write history is not confined to World War II.
It is now accepted by all reputable historians, French and foreign, that Captain Alfred Dreyfus, the Jewish army officer jailed in 1894 for spying for the Germans, was innocent. He was framed by the ultra-nationalist, anti-Semitic military establishment because he was Jewish.
The Dreyfus case became – and remains for the ultra-Right – a litmus test of blind French patriotism. You were, and are, either pro-France or pro-Dreyfus. You cannot be both.
The Jewish Zemmour has in recent years cast doubt (with no evidence whatsoever) on the innocence of Dreyfus. He does so in a weaselly way ie “the innocence of Dreyfus cannot be proved.” In any case, he says, the French military distrusted the hapless officer because he was “German, not because he was Jewish.”
This is a direct lie. Captain Dreyfus was Alsatian. The anti-Semitism of his persecutors was blatant and unashamed.
Zemmour also claimed in Rouen last week that France and Britain had been “enemies for 1,000 years”.
Really? Our two countries have not fought one another (except on the rugby field or about fishing grounds) for more than two centuries.
Something like 500,000 British soldiers were killed on French soil in 1914-18 – fighting for their own country but also fighting for France. Eric Zemmour should take the time to visit the Somme.
An obvious question arises. Why does Zemmour take so much trouble to distort French history?
First, to establish his credentials as an ultra-patriot and rehabilitate (he hopes) the race-based ideology of the far-right. Zemmour claims that the forces of “anti-France” have conspired to besmirch French patriotism – and especially his own ultra-nationalist, race-obsessed politics – by droning on about Dreyfus and exaggerating France’s 1940-44 failures.
As a Jew, Zemmour believes that he is well-placed to revise 20th century history, without suffering the same kind of rejection as Marine Le Pen’s father, Jean-Marie, when he tried the same thing in the 1980s and 1990s.
Zemmour likes to quote George Orwell (a man who would have detested him.) In particular, he likes to quote an Orwell line from 1984: “Who controls the past controls the future. Who controls the present controls the past.”
Zemmour believes French history has been used to disqualify the ultra-nationalist right and to promote a squashy, left-leaning internationalism and tolerance. To sweep it all away, he needs to change the narrative.
Can it work? In the short term, I think not. Zemmour shot to 17 percent in first round voting intentions in some polls three weeks ago. Since then, he has been lower in some polls, stable in others. He is not deflating; nor is he advancing.
The more that some people hear from Zemmour, I believe, the less they will like him. It is depressing and scary all the same that he is taken seriously by so many supposedly well-educated and well-heeled (ie non-suffering) French people.
His revisioinist project is, I believe, long-term: to change the software in French minds to prepare the ground for an ultra-nationalist, authoritarian government in 2027 or beyond. In that he may already be succeeding.