A survey published by France’s human rights defender, an independent administrative authority, revealed that a “fear of reprisal” was cited as the most common reason for employees’ low-engagement in trade unions.
A large majority of those surveyed said their trade union activities had a negative impact for their professional growth and said they felt discriminated against by their employers.
The survey highlighted the main causes for the decrease of trade union membership in France since the 1950's, which is now one of the lowest rates of unionised employees in the European Union. But for most of the 19th century, trade unions achieved some major accomplishments for workers’ rights.
Here are five things you should know about trade unions in France.
Philippe Martinez, the outspoken head of the CGT union. AFP
What is a trade union and why is its purpose?
A trade union’s main objective is to defend the common professional interests of a group of people who share the same or similar professions.
Trade unions were made legal in France by the 1884 Waldeck-Rousseau law, which was reaffirmed by the current Constitution.
Which are the main trade unions in France?
In order to negotiate and sign agreements on behalf of employees, a trade union must be granted the legitimacy to represent its members.
There are seven criteria a union must meet to be fully representative of its members:
Respect Republican values
Be financially transparent
Have a minimum of two years’ seniority
Have members who pay their dues
Have a check and balances system set up with employees
This last point is the most important and is measured every four years during professional elections
There are employer and employee trade unions in France.
Four unions are accredited at the national level to negotiate and conclude agreements in all sectors for employees.
The Force Ouvriere union at a protest in Paris. Photo: AFP
- The General Confederation of Labour (Confédération générale du travail CGT)
- The French Democratic Confederation of Labour (Confédération française démocratique du travail CFDT)
- The French Confederation of Christian Workers (Confédération française des travailleurs chrétiens CFTC)
- Workers' Force (Force ouvrière FO)
The French Confederation of Management (Confédération générale des cadres CGC) is the only union accredited at the national level to negotiate on behalf of managerial staff.
All of these are headed by a secretary general, and have trade union officers and delegates.
Employers in France are usually represented by the Movement of the Enterprises of France (MEDEF), which is the biggest of its kind.
Some professional groups also have their own trade union, such as doctors who are represented by the confederation of French medical unions (CSMF) or journalists who can become members of the national union of journalists (SNJ).
Students also have their own union called the national unions of students of France (Unef).
Members of the CGT union during a recent Paris transport strike. AFP
Why are unions important?
Trade unions are the main entities fighting to improve (or at least hold on to) work conditions, salaries, and social protection for their members.
The government must consult the unions when carrying out social reforms. As per a 2007 law, any amendments to the work code must be consulted with trade unions before being made. Prime Minister Edouard Philippe had to negotiate with unions before passing the contentions 2017 labour reforms.
How are trade unions funded?
Trade unions are mainly financed by membership fees as well as by certain taxes such as the employers’ contribution to the financing of trade union organisations. French law requires the full disclosure of trade unions’ accounts.
Is it important to be a union member?
There is no right answer to that as the choice is mainly a personal one.
France has one of the weakest rates of unionised employees in Europe as the percentage of union members has been on a downward spiral since the post-war years.
The latest data published by the Work Ministry showed that only 11% of employees in public and private sectors were union members in 2016, with men being more prone to join a union than women.
Public sector employees tend to be more unionised than those in the private sector, with 19,1% in the public sector belonging to a union compared to 8,4% of their private counterparts.
However, most unions still play an important role in negotiations within a company. In particular, professional unions will still be consulted by the government on their respective sectors.
Professional trade unions are also the main actors fighting to provide better work conditions to their respective sector.