Organisers said lunch was served to nearly 2,000 people along just over 401 metres' length of table, between the market's fruit-and-vegetable stands.
Officials from the Guinness Book of Records approved the bid, which beat the previous record of 322 metres set in 2017 on the French Indian Ocean island of Reunion.
Rungis, seven kilometres (four miles) south of Paris, replaced the old market in the heart of Paris, Les Halles, when it was closed in 1969.
It is the world's biggest fresh produce market, covering 234 hectares (580 acres) and employing 12,000 wholesalers, producers, porters, restaurateurs and other workers in 1,200 separate businesses.
— Renaud Thiers (@renothiers) March 17, 2019
Many of the people who work at the market took part in the record bid.