It will be up to anti-terrorist judges to decide whether all 14 are tried.
The decision comes nearly four years after brothers Cherif and Said Kouachi and Amedy Coulibaly killed 12 people at the offices of Charlie Hebdo on January 7, 2015.
The next day a policewoman was killed just outside Paris, while another gunman took hostages at a Jewish supermarket, four of whom were killed.
All the attackers were killed in separate shootouts with police.
Authorities said the attackers had claimed allegiance to Al-Qaeda and the Islamic State militant group.
Those likely to face trial are accused of “complicity” in assisting the attackers, including providing them with weapons.
Another man, French national Peter Cherif, an associate of the Kouachi brothers, was arrested in Djibouti on December 16, French officials said Friday.
The Djibouti presidency confirmed the arrest, describing Cherif, 36, as “a suspected international terrorist”.
Cherif was expected to be extradited from Djibouti. He has not yet been indicted in connection with the Charlie Hebdo attack.