The story behind France’s Christmas tradition of little saints

Provence in the south of France adds a unique touch to its Christmas celebration with traditional 'santons', little figurines with a big history.

The story behind France's Christmas tradition of little saints
All photos: AFP
So what is a Santon? And how do you pronounce it?
A Santon (sounds like sonn-tonn) is a small, handmade clay figurine.
The characters typically represent vegetable sellers, bakers, men selling chestnuts, local dignitaries, or other personalities from daily village life. 
And they're quite little indeed, usually between two and 15 centimetres in height. 
Where do I find them?
In nativity scenes all over France – but especially in the south. They originated in Provence. 
Are these a new thing?
Hardly. They've been around in various forms for hundreds of years, but first took a clay form at the end of the 18th century thanks to the handiwork of Marseille-born artist Jean-Louis Lagnel.
He is generally credited with inventing the product as we know it today, although it wasn't until after his death in 1822 that they were called “Santons”. Indeed, in Lagnel's time the figurines weren't heated up during the production process, so didn't last nearly as long as they do today. 
Hang on, the end of the 18th century? This smells of the French revolution!
Indeed, well spotted. The French revolution saw nativity scenes banned and churches closed, so making the little saints was a way of secretly maintaining the religious traditions – at risk of being guillotined, of course. 
The word Santon literally translates as “Little Saint”, but there is just as much a focus on the other characters in a village, as well as Mary, Joseph, and baby Jesus. 
These nativity scenes are supposed to be representative of the ideal Provencal village.
How do you make a Santon?
With great patience, at least according to the ten-minute video below (which is well worth a watch).
If you haven't got a spare ten mins, here's the brief version:
An artist – called a santonnier – carves the figurine from clay, makes a two-piece plaster cast of it, then makes several more figurines from the plaster form. 
The Santons are then dried, thrown in the kiln, and then hand painted, usually in very bright colours. 
Santonniers often go to great lengths to make the backgrounds of the nativity scene too, including making buildings, using local produce for trees and plants, and putting clothes on the figurines. 
And lastly… what if I want more?
Marseille usually holds a Santon festival, which has been going on since 1803. It's called the Foire aux Santons, and a scaled down version of it is running this year. If you'd rather avoid crowds though, why not take a walking tour of the fair via the YouTube video below? 
Another version of this story was published in 2016.

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Will anywhere in France get a white Christmas this year?

A white Christmas might be at the top of many people's festive wish list but will it actually come true for anyone in France this year?

Haut-Koenigsbourg castle in Orschwiller, eastern France.
Haut-Koenigsbourg castle in Orschwiller, eastern France. Non-mountainous parts of the country will not see snow this year. (Photo by PATRICK HERTZOG / AFP)

If you’re in France and have been dreaming of a white Christmas, you are probably out of luck. 

It has been freezing in recent days with temperatures falling to a low of -33.4C in Jura on Wednesday morning, but the cold spell isn’t going to last. 

Temperatures across the country will hover around the 10C level in most of France by the afternoon on December 25th according to Météo France, with parts of the country including Brittany and some parts of eastern France experiencing rainfall. 

By the afternoon on Christmas Day, the chances of snow look extremely limited. Source:

On Saturday, there will be some snowfall, but only if you are high in the mountains at an altitude of 1,800-2,000m. On Sunday, places above 1,500m could also see snow – but this rules out the vast majority of the country. 

Roughly half the country will see sunshine over the weekend. The French weather channel said that this Christmas could be among the top five or six warmest since 1947. 

Last year, Météo France cautioned: “While we often associate snow with Christmas in the popular imagination, the probability of having snow in the plains [ie not in the mountains] during this period is weak in reality.”

One of the last great Christmas snowfalls, outside of France’s mountainous areas, came in 2010 when 3-10 cm of snow fell in Lille, Rouen and Paris. In Strasbourg, 26cm fell. 

On Christmas Day in 1996, 12 cm of snow fell in Angers – ironically, this was also the day that the film, Y’aura t’il de la neige à Noël? (Will there never be snow at Christmas?) was released. It had been ten years since France had seen such snowfall outside of the Alps and Pyrenees. 

Météo France directly attributes declining rates of Christmas snowfall to climate change. Compared to 50 years ago, even the Alps receives the equivalent one less month of snowfall per year.