Among those hit in France included former presidential candidate and Bordeaux mayor Alain Juppé and the French Ministry of the Economy.
The profiles were defaced by pro-Turkish hackers with a message slamming "Nazi Germany" and "Nazi Holland", and featured a swastika.
The ministry's profile picture was temporarily changed to the coat of arms of the Ottoman Empire, reported BFMTV.
"#NaziGermany. #NaziHolland. This is a small #Ottomanslap for you. See you on #April16. I wrote what? Learn Turkish," read the message, which comes in the midst of a bitter row between Europe and Turkey over Turkish government rallies on European soil.
The message also featured a swastika and was followed by a video showing extracts of speeches by Turkish President Recep Tayyip Erdogan.
It was also tweeted out by the hacked accounts of French television shows and TV channels.
Twitter confirmed the attack.
"We are aware of an issue affecting a number of account holders this morning," a Twitter spokesperson told the AFP, adding the source of the attack had been tracked to a third party app whose permissions had been removed.
Outside of France, many other accounts were hit by the attacks, including that of tennis legend Boris Becker, Germany's Borussia Dortmund football club, and BBC North America.
The cyberattack comes after Turkish politicians were last week banned by The Netherlands and several German towns from holding rallies to woo expatriate support for an April 16 constitutional referendum on boosting Erdogan's powers.
The restrictions caused outrage in Turkey with Erdogan accusing Germany and the Netherlands of "Nazi" practices.
Turkey has suspended top-level ties with The Netherlands over the row.