Are the French falling out of love with their pharmacies?

There's been a steady decline in the number of pharmacies in France, and it looks like it's going to continue.

Are the French falling out of love with their pharmacies?
Photo: The LEAF Project/Flickr
No French high street would be complete without a flashing green neon cross denoting the local pharmacy. Often you can find two or three dotted along a single road, each one crammed with a huge array of medicines, skin creams and beauty products packed into nondescript little boxes.  
While pharmacy chains like Boots and Superdrug have monopolised streets across the channel in the UK, pharmacies in France tend to be small and private. Their prevalence (in 2015 there were more than 22,000 across the country) reflects France's long-lasting love affair with drugs. 
The French are one of the world's most enthusiastic pill-poppers, in fact. Look into a French person’s medical cabinet and you’ll likely find an apothecary in miniature, full of pills and potions for every conceivable ailment. 
A 2014 study by France’s National Safety Agency found that nearly one third of French people used some sort of psychotropic drug alone. Investigative reporter Guy Hugnet, author of Psychotropic Drugs, the Investigation, lamented French medical orthodoxy by saying that “medicine is a religion that cannot be questioned”. 
Photo: Fredrik Rubensson/Flickr
But despite their ubiquity – and France’s enthusiasm for drugs – French pharmacies are in lacklustre health. The number of pharmacies has been plunging steadily for the last ten years – with nearly a thousand disappearing – and the rate of change is accelerating year on year.
In 2015, a pharmacy closed its doors for good every two days, compared to one every three days in 2014. The départements of central France's Corrèze and Orne and Haute-Marne to the north have been among those most affected by the decline. 
In 2015, bankruptcy only accounted for ten percent of closures; the rest were due to a difficulty in finding qualified people to replace retiring chemists.
More and more baby-boomer chemists are reach the retirement age, while fewer and fewer pharmacy students are choosing the dispensary stream, opting instead for the pharmaceutical industry or work in hospitals. 
The number of chemists reaching the retirement age of 65 is due to triple by 2021, so the sickly state of French pharmacies is unlikely to improve any time soon.
Who knows, it might be your local pharmacy that goes next. The good news – for now at least – is that there's probably another one on the next corner. 
By Imogen Wallace

Photo: Fredrik Rubensson/Flickr

Member comments

  1. If drugs are so prevalent then why can’t I buy Vyvanse for my ADD & narcolepsy? The stuff they sell only works if you follow it with six shots of expresso.

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EXPLAINED: Why does France have so many pharmacies?

One of the first things newcomers notice about France is the preponderance of pharmacies - instantly recognisable by their illuminated green cross signs - in every town, city and even some villages.

EXPLAINED: Why does France have so many pharmacies?
Over-the-counter medicines in pharmacies. Photo: Guillaume Sauvant/AFP

They are one of the things that make the French high street distinctive – the regular illuminated green cross of the pharmacy which helpfully also displays the time, date and temperature, but how does the economy sustain so many of these businesses?

How many?

Although pharmacies are lot more prevalent in France than many other countries, the French are not the European leaders in this field.

The most recent data on pharmacies shows around 21,000 in mainland France.

But an EU comparison from 2017 shows that France had 33 pharmacies per 100,000 people, a respectable number but not far ahead of the EU average of 29 and miles behind front-runner Greece, which has an astonishing 88 pharmacies for every 100,000 people.

Graphic: OECD

In fact France has fewer pharmacies per head of the population than Greece, Spain, Belgium, Latvia, Estonia, Slovakia, Ireland and Poland. It is however well above the UK (which at the time of the data was still part of the EU) on 21 on Denmark which has just 7 pharmacies for every 100,000 people, which could make for quite long queues.

The places in France with the highest density of pharmacies are Paris and the départements of central France – although that probably relates more to central France’s low population density than an abundance of pharmacies. One third of pharmacies are in places with fewer than 5,000 inhabitants.

Overall the number of pharmacies in France is falling, from 22,514 in 2007 to 21,192 in 2017.

But is there enough business for them all?


One of the main reasons for the popularity of the pharmacy is that they are the only place you can buy certain things, thanks to restrictive French rules on over-the-counter medicines.

While in many countries you can buy headache tablets or paracetamol in a number of places including supermarkets, corner shops and service stations, in France drugs like Ibuprofen can only be bought at a pharmacy.

This is also true for things like cough medicine and cold remedies, so if you have a minor illness you need to head to the pharmacy.

There are also restrictions on ownership which mean that pharmacy chains are not allowed, although parapharmacies – which only offer non-prescription medicines – are often part of a chain.


As well as selling over-the-counter products, pharmacists also dispense medication prescribed by doctors and here French doctors and their patients keep them busy – a study in 2019 showed that 90 percent of doctors’ appointments result in a prescription and the average prescription is for three or more items.

READ ALSO Why are the French so keen on taking medicine?

The French are among the most medicated populations in Europe and a generous healthcare system means that most prescriptions are reimbursed, so patients are unlikely to hesitate before filling a prescription that their doctors give them.

Pharmacies in France usually also sell a wide variety of homeopathic remedies which are extremely popular, although from 2020 the government has stopped funding these.

Pharmacies have been a key part of Covid testing in France. Photo Guillaume Guay/AFP

Medical access

Another reason that French people love their pharmacies is that they are really useful. Every pharmacy or parapharmacy has at least one trained pharmacist on the premises who as well as dispensing medicines can give medical advice on a range of ailments.

They are particularly useful in the growing number of ‘medical deserts’ where there are not enough doctors for the local population and also open in the evenings and at weekends. Pharmacies in small towns or city neighbourhoods often have a rota so that at least one is open on a Sunday.

They also offer a number of extremely useful services such as dispensing the winter flu vaccine and – from March 15th – the Covid vaccine, while if you have been mushroom picking, you can take your haul to the local pharmacy to check that you haven’t picked anything poisonous.