The roughly 80 activists blocked off two bridges close to the city centre and burned tyres, waved banners and set off smoke bombs, police and officials said.
Riot police broke up the demonstration and seized a truck transporting equipment for the group.
While surrounded by officers, some protesters carried banners saying “No Way” and “Go Home,” according to photos and video of the protest posted on Twitter.
A press release from the far-right group — Generation Identitaire — said about 130 activists took control of “three bridges that allowed migrants to access the city of Calais.”
This incident comes after five men posing as police officers were detained on Friday on suspicion of attacking migrants in Calais.
A police source said the attackers used iron bars and pickaxe handles, saying the men went repeatedly to Calais to attack migrants.
Four other people were arrested on February 22 and charged with participating in attacks several months ago on migrants near the infamous Calais camp known as the “Jungle”.
Thousands of migrants have been living in the Jungle and other smaller camps along the northern coast, desperate to reach Britain where many have family or community ties and see better hopes of gaining employment or education.