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MUSIC

Radio rift as France runs out of French music

Radio stations in France are rebelling against a plan to force them to play more French music. The problem appears to be that there just isn’t enough music being made in French anymore.

Radio rift as France runs out of French music
France is running out of French music and its putting pressure on radio stations. Photo: AFP

Numerous radio stations in France on Tuesday tore up the rule book and ignored a 21-year-old law that forces them to play a minimum amount of French language music.

The 24-hour protest is being led by independent radio stations and those in the Lagardere group like RTL, NRJ and Europe1.

That 1994 law laid down the rule that 40 percent of songs played on radio stations must be in French and was aimed at protecting homegrown Gallic talent from the rapid invasion of Anglo influences.

But a recent amendment to that law has got DJs frothing at their microphones and prompted this week's  24-hour rebellion. As well as the strike, listeners have also been encouraged to phone Prime Minister Manuel Valls.

The amendment, backed by France’s Minister of Culture Fleur Pellerin (pictured below), was brought in after MPs claimed stations were flouting the quota law and simply playing the same old French songs just to meet the quotas.


(France's Culture Minister Fleur Pellerin. Photo: AFP)

From now on the ten most played French songs on the radio will only count towards 50 percent of the quota, meaning DJs will have to rummage around their record boxes to find other Gallic tracks. It is hoped the amendment will encourage them to play one or two extra tracks.

But the heads of radio stations have gone on the war path, accusing the minister of culture of lying and defaming them. They say the new amendment is an attack on their liberty.

They also claim the move will simply push music lovers towards streaming channels like Deezer and Spotify, which are not subject to any quotas.

Tareq Mami from the union Sirti, which represents 40 independent radio stations told The Local that it was ridiculous to not oblige internet sites to follow the same rules.

“It's like introducing a law whereby Renault cars can go through all red traffic lights but Peugeot cars have to wait through two red lights before they can move on,” he said.

“The law is already difficult for us without this new amendment.”

Emmanuel Rials president of the rock music station Oui FM said: “It’s not for MPs to tell us what we can and cannot broadcast,”  

“This puts us under artistic supervision;” Rials told Le Monde.

“We are suffering because of these quotas as listeners go to places where they can listen to what they want,” said Jean-Eric Vallis, chairman of Indés Radios umbrella group.

But the real reason that has led to the dispute arising is the huge decline in French music, or at least music in the French language.

While many French artists like Daft Punk and David Guetta have proved a success, they are opting to sing in English so as to widen their appeal beyond France.


(French music duo Daft Punk. Photo: AFP)

From 2003 to 2014 there was a 66 percent drop in albums produced in French to the point that a staggering 83 percent of French music is produced in English.

And between 2009 and 2014 the number of new songs produced in French fell by 47 percent, according to Indés Radios.

So while the old 1994 quotas remain in force, the choice of French music that radio stations have at hand is drying up.

Although these figures are disputed by many in the record industry, with the umbrella organisation SNEP claiming twice as many albums were produced in French in 2014 compared to 2013.

They claim radio stations have killed “musical diversity” and have backed the new amendment, which still needs government backing before it becomes law.

“This is a breakthrough for musical creation that does not at all hinder the editorial freedom of the radios,” said a joint statement by ten artists and organisations.

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CULTURE

Skulls, beer and a ‘cathedral’: Discover the secrets of underground Paris

You've certainly heard of the Metro, maybe the catacombs and perhaps even the Phantom of the Opera's underground lake - but there are some things lurking beneath Paris that might surprise you.

Skulls, beer and a 'cathedral': Discover the secrets of underground Paris

One of Europe’s most densely populated cities, Paris has over two million people living within its boundaries. As those inhabitants walk along the Champs-Elysées or Rue de Rivoli, they might be entirely unaware of the extensive underground world that exists below their feet. 

These are some of the hidden gems beneath the famous monuments in the City of Light:

Skulls, beer and police

The final resting place for over six million Parisians – the catacombs are the most well-known part of underground Paris, but did you know that the 1,700 metres of catacombs that are open to the public represent less than one percent of the whole of the catacombs in Paris? In fact, the underground network is thought to be around 300 km in size.

The catacombs are also known as the Ossuaire Municipal, and they are located at the site of former limestone quarries. The Ossuaire as we know it was created during the 18th century, because the city’s cemeteries could not withstand its population growth and public health concerns began to be raised. Gradually the remains of millions of Parisians were moved underground.

The bones of Parisians only comprise a small section of Paris’ ‘carrières‘ (or quarries), which can be seen in the above map.

These subterranean passages have fascinated cataphiles for many years – with stories of secret parties, illicit tunnel exploration and much more. During the Covid lockdowns, the catacombs infamously served as a location for clandestine parties. At one point, over 35 people were ticketed for participating in underground raves

The network even has its own police service, the Intervention and Protection Group, known colloquially as the cataflics, who are a specialised police brigade in charge of monitoring the old quarries in Paris.

Though these quarries might be a location to secretly throw back a few pints, they are also connected to beer for another reason, as they are the ideal environment to both store and make beer – with consistently cool temperatures and nearby access to underground water sources.

In 1880, the Dumesnil brewery, located in the 14th arrondissement, invested in the quarries underneath its premises, using them to store the thousands of barrels of beer that it produced each year. Over the years, the brewery simply turned its basement into a real underground factory. 

If you really want to visit the ancient underground quarries specifically, you don’t have to just go to the catacombs. You can also do so by visiting the “Carrières des Capucins.” Found just below the Cochin hospital, located in the 14th arrondissement, access to these tunnels is allowed to the public (with reservation) in small groups.

As for entering the rest of the old quarry system, that has been illegal to enter the old quarries since 1955, which has not stopped several curious visitors and explorers from trying to discover what secrets might be underground. 

Sewer Museum

Recently renovated, this museum might not be at the top of a tourist’s list in the same way the Louvre or Musée d’Orsay might, but the museum of sewers actually has a lot of fascinating history to share. It took almost a century to build Paris’ sewage system, and it is largely to thank for the city’s growth, protecting the public health of inhabitants by helping prevent disease outbreaks. 

Visiting the sewers is not a new activity either – according to the museum’s website, “as early as 1867, the year of the World’s Fair, visits were met with immense public success, the reason being that this underground space had always been hidden from the curious eyes of all those who dwell on the surface of Paris.”

Ghost stations

A total of 16 Metro stations go unused underground in Paris – some were built and never put into use, others were decommissioned after World War II.

The most famous is Porte des Lilas – a working Metro station that has an unused ‘ghost’ section which these days is used for filming scenes in movies and TV.

If you’ve ever watched a scene set in the Metro, chances are it was filmed at Porte des Lilas, which has a section of track that Metro cars can move along if needed for action sequences. 

The extra section was taken out of commission in 1939 due to under-use, and in the 1950s it served as a place to test new metro cars.

Beware if you find yourself in Haxo station – it does not have its own entrance or exit and is only accessible by following the Metro tunnels. It is one of the six that never opened, similar to Porte Molitor, Orly-Sud, La Défense-Michelet, or Élysée-La Défense.

Other stations were closed for being too close to other stations, such as the Saint-Martin station, which was closed after World War II as it was too close to Strasbourg-Saint Denis. 

These phantom stations are usually off-limits to the public, but sometimes access is allowed for special guided tours or events.

Reminders of World War II 

Paris’ underground played an important role during the Second World War.

First, there is the French resistance command bunker, which is now part of the Musée de la Libération at Place Denfert Rochereau.

It was from here that Resistance leaders co-ordinated the battle for the liberation of Paris in 1944.

There is also the anti-bombardment bunker near Gare de l’Est. Normally this is closed during the year, but it is opened on Heritage Day in September. (Journées de patrimoine). 

The bunker was originally commissioned in 1939 to keep trains running, even in the event of a gas attack, and it was completed by the Germans in November 1941. It is located between Metro tracks 3 and 4. The bunker itself – which can fit up to 50 people – has basically been frozen in time, featuring a control room and telephone. 

Another river

You’ve heard of the Seine, but what about the underground river that flows through the city of Paris? Prior to the 20th century, the Bièvre river flowed through the city as well, running through Paris’ 13th and 5th arrondisements. Once upon a time, tanners and dyers set up shop next to the Bievre, shown in the image below. 

The river eventually became quite polluted and concerns arose that it might be a health hazard, so in 1875, as part of his transformation of the city, Georges-Eugène Haussmann decided that the Bièvre had to go. It was mostly covered up, and now what remains of the river flows beneath the city, with some parts of it joining Paris’ sewage system.

The Phantom’s lake

If you are a fan of Phantom of the Opera, you would know that the Phantom’s lair is below the Palais Garnier (the Opera house), and that Christine and the Phantom must cross a subterranean lake to get there.

This body of water is not a figment the imagination of Gaston Leroux – though not an actual lake, a large water tank can be found below the grounds. It is even used to train firefighters to swim in the dark.

The Phantom’s not real, though (probably).

‘Cathedral’

The Montsouris reservoir is one of Paris’ primary drinking water sources, along with L’Haÿ-les-Roses, Saint-Cloud, Ménilmontant and Les Lilas.

But while it’s undoubtedly very useful, it’s most famous for its looks.

The structure resembles a kind of underground water cathedral and is home to over 1,800 pillars, which support its numerous vaults and arches. It’s closed to the public, but its rare beauty means that it’s often photographed by urban explorers.

Mushroom farms

And last but not least – the ‘mushroom houses.’ Les champignons de Paris have been grown below the capital’s soil for centuries.

READ MORE: Inside Paris’ underground mushroom farms

“Paris mushrooms” have been grown since the 17th century. The rosé des près (meadow pink) mushrooms were a favourite of Louis XIV and were originally grown overground – their colour comes from the limestone that Paris is build on.

By the 19th century they went underground, which provided more space and allowed the fungi to be cultivated year-round, but eventually the construction of the Paris Metro pushed many growers out of the capital.

Today, there are just five traditional producers in operation – Shoua-moua Vang runs the largest underground mushroom cave in the Paris region, spread across one and a half hectares of tunnels in a hill overlooking the Seine river. 

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