Emmanuel Macron told parliament he had taken legal action against "certain public officials" for "death threats that I have received."
"You will agree this is especially shocking," he added.
Macron is trying to push through a controversial series of laws that he hopes will, in his words, "unblock" France's economy, which is suffering from high unemployment and sluggish growth.
These include opening up heavily regulated professions such as notarial lawyers, sparking the unusual sight of these white-collar workers marching through the streets.
The reforms also include a proposal to extend Sunday shopping that sparked angry demonstrations.