The 24-year-old, who Newcastle first tried to sign in January, signed a six-year contract with the club for an undisclosed free.
"This is a move that I really wanted to make as I have heard nothing but good things about Newcastle United from everyone I spoke to," said Cabella, who has won one cap for his country.
"I wanted to join a great English club and that is why I have arrived here. I'm looking forward to pulling on the shirt and playing in this magnificent stadium, and I will give this club my maximum."
Cabella, who joined fresh from being with the France squad at the World Cup finals in Brazil, is manager Alan Pardew's fourth summer acquisition after Jack Colback, Siem de Jong and Ayoze Perez.