A BVA-Gallup International survey in 2011 found that despite their relatively high standard of living, the French were the most pessimistic people in the world. So, in a country where they have a 35-hour working week, lengthy summer holidays, wholesome cuisine, great wine and a fantastic countryside, why are the French people so down on themselves?
On 2013 Professor Claudia Senik from the Paris School of Economics presented a report to the Royal Economic Society in London on the reasons why, based on her study of the European Social Survey.
Here Senik tells The Local why France's own culture and education system are partly to blame for the French being less cheery than their worse-off European neighbours, and how speaking better English would help them get back their joie de vivre.
School is to blame
Professor Claudia Senik: “I think the role of the primary school system in France is partly to blame. If unhappiness is partly due to someone's mentality, then people are forming that negative mentality at an early age in primary schools.
"One theory is that the grading system in French schools is responsible. In France, students are generally graded on a scale of 0 to 10 or 0 to 20 and it's very difficult to get high grades. This means the majority of pupils are used to getting bad grades. When they think about their self-worth or their value, they think about these grades, which are usually low or intermediate.
"This view becomes ingrained since childhood, so they become dissatisfied with themselves.
“It is well documented that, in the United States for instance, children have a much more positive view of themselves, where school is more geared towards building self-confidence. This is not the case in France. In Nordic countries, too, pupils are not graded as much and the grades are much easier to achieve.
"To improve the happiness of French people the schooling system needs changing. It is too strict, and in primary school the children will do French, History and Maths but then only one hour of drawing and two of hours of gym a week. That's ridiculous. It needs to be more multi-dimensional.
"I was amazed at the importance of sport in the American school system, but in France you really have to be a pure intellectual if you want to be happy at school.
“There are of course positive aspects to the French education system. They are very good academically, but not necessarily for making the kids happy."
Lost grandeur of the French empire
"In life you always compare your position in reference to some benchmark, and in France this is the grandeur of the old Francophone empire and the influence that France used to have in the world.
"Painters and writers used to come to France to make a career but that's not the case anymore. People may not always be conscious of this, but they are feeling it. It's a feeling of decline in terms of international influence. Many countries in Europe are experiencing this decline but the French feel it more than others.
"What makes it worse is that the French also don't really appreciate the new world, either. There's something deep in French ideology that makes them dislike market-based globalization (supply and demand, competition, and so on.)"
The French need to learn English to be happier
"To be happier the French could do with learning more foreign languages. Of course, Anglophone countries are worse, but that doesn't matter because everyone speaks English. Being happy is not about speaking the foreign language itself, but about being able to fit more easily into this globalized world, which you can do if you speak English.
"Travel will also help the French, because if you always stay in one country then that becomes your benchmark. Many French people would benefit from seeing what the situation is like in other countries."
Professor Claudia Senik
This article was originally published in February 2013