France loses 1000 factories in four years

The extent of the decline of France’s ailing industrial sector was laid bare on Tuesday, with the publication of a report stating over 1000 factories had closed since January 2009.

France loses 1000 factories in four years
The doomed PSA Citroën Peugeot plant to the north of Paris looks like the next factory to bite the dust. Photo: The Local

In 2012 alone, 266 plants with 10 or more employees closed their doors for good. That figure represented a 42 percent increase in the number of closures, compared to the previous year, according to the report by Paris-based data analyst firm Trendeo.

Naturally, the closures have had an impact on jobs, with Trendeo reporting 24,000 losses last year alone and 120,000 since January 2009.

Explaining the reasons behind the decline, Trendeo’s David Cousquer told the Local that the strength of the Euro currency was a hindrance for France.

“The rising value of the Euro against the dollar certainly does not help,” he said. “It has risen 10 percent since July 2012 and it adversely affects the competitiveness of enterprises because it makes it more difficult for them to export their goods.”

Cousquer also notes that “France is not an island” and “external factors” are also at play, with the country’s industry wobbling at a time when Europe is in the grip of a financial crisis.

Although most areas of France’s manufacturing industry, including pharmaceuticals, have been bit by job cuts and closures, it is the country’s once mighty automobile sector that has taken the biggest hit.

Around half of the 24,000 jobs lost in 2012 were in the car-making industry.

And matters are only set to get worse it seems, with PSA Peugeot Citroën intending to cull 8,000 jobs. The restructuring project also includes plans to close down its historic plant to the north of Paris.

The plan to close PSA's Paris plant is currently on hold after a French court decided it wanted to review the proposals, but France’s Minister for Industrial Recovery, Arnaud Montebourg told French radio RTL on Tuesday that the closure of the plant was ultimately “unavoidable”.

“We have not found any other solution,” he said. “We don’t know what else we can do.”

The French government is asking PSA to ensure that the 3,000 workers at the factory be helped to find alternative employment elsewhere in the company.

In a further blow to the automobile industry, Renault recently revealed plans to cut 7,500 jobs across France, and tyre firm Goodyear also announced at the end of January that it would be closing its plant in Amiens.

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How to get a summer job in France

As the summer holidays approach in France, many employers are looking for seasonal workers - so if you're looking for a summer job, here's how to go about it.

How to get a summer job in France

There are thousands of employment offers in France – a simple internet search for jobs d’été came up with numerous jobs boards offering work in France, while the government-backed Centre d’Information et de Documentation pour la Jeunesse (CIDJ) offers advice and information on all aspects of life for young people in France, including finding seasonal work and summer placements.

Sectors including agriculture, hospitality and tourism are always recruiting in the summer, seeking fruit-pickers, holiday camp workers and serving/hotel staff.

But what are the rules for people seeking summer jobs?

READ ALSO Vendange: What you really sign up for when you agree to help with the French wine harvest


Children from the age of 16 (under certain circumstances, the age limit drops to 14) who are legally resident in France can work as long as they have written authorisation from their parents or legal guardians. A model authorisation letter is available here

Those under the age of 18 cannot undertake certain jobs for health and safety reasons.

In the following circumstances, children as young as 14 or 15 can work during school holidays.

  • The holidays must last at least 14 days;
  • The child must work no more than half the days of the holiday – so, if a vacation period is two weeks, they can work for no more than one of those weeks;
  • The child is given ‘light duties’ that offer no risk to their safety, health, or development;
  • From the age of 15 and if the child has completed their troisieme education, a minor can register for an apprenticeship. 


Salary is usually paid monthly and will have a payslip. For those aged 18 and over, pay will be at least equal to the minimum wage.

 For those aged 14 to 17, who have less than six months’ professional experience, the minimum allowed rate is 80 percent of the minimum wage. For those aged 17 to 18, the rate rises to a minimum of 90 percent of France’s minimum wage.

  • The minimum wage in France is currently €10.85 gross per hour (€1,645.58 gross per month based on a 35-hour week);
  • the employment contract is fixed-term and can take different forms (fixed-term contract, seasonal employment contract, temporary employment contract, etc);
  • Seasonal employees are subject to the same obligations as the other employees of the company and have access to the same benefits (canteens, breaks, etc.).

Under 18s have certain additional protections:

  • between the ages of 14 and 16, during school holidays, employees on any contract cannot work more than 35 hours per week nor more than 7 hours per day;
  • They cannot work at night;
  • Those aged 14 to under 16 working during their school holidays can only be assigned to work which is not likely to harm their safety, their health or development.

Right to work in France

If you’re a French citizen or hold permanent residency in France then you have the right to work, but for foreigners there are extra restrictions.

Anyone who holds the passport of a EU/EEA country or Switzerland, is free to work in France or to travel to France seeking work without needing a visa or work permit.

Most other people will need permission to work in France – even if it’s only for a short period or for casual work such as grape-picking. Depending on your country of origin you may need a visa – everything you need to know about that is here.

In addition to the visa, you may also need a work permit, which is the responsibility of the employer.  To employ anyone in France for less than 90 days, an employer must get a temporary work permit – before the prospective employee applies for a short stay visa. This permit is then sent to the embassy at which the employee is applying for a visa.

If you come from countries including the UK, USA and Canada you can spend up to 90 days in France without a visa – but you may still need a work (convention d’accueil) if you want to work while you are here.

READ ALSO Six official websites to know if you’re planning to work in France

Certain countries have specific ‘seasonal worker’ visas on offer, for certain sectors which allows – for example – Canadians to come to France and work the ski season. 

Cash-in-hand jobs

Certain sectors which have a lot of casual workers – for example seasonal fruit-picking – do have cash-in-hand jobs, known in France as marché noir (black market) or simply travail au black (working on the black, or working illegally). 

This is of course illegal and working this way carries risks – as well as the possibility of losing your job if labour inspectors turn up you are also in a vulnerable position. If your employer suddenly decides not to pay you, or make unexpected deductions from your wages, there is very little you can do about it since you won’t have any kind of work contract.