The popular 79-year-old, president between 1995 and 2007, is facing conflict of interest, abuse of power and embezzlement charges and could be sentenced to up to 10 years in prison and a fine of €150,000 ($195,000).
Chirac is unlikely to face prison time however, as Paris prosecutors have urged the court to acquit him and nine other accused in the trial. Analysts say a suspended sentence is most likely even if he is found guilty.
Chirac is accused on two counts of hiring members of his political party for non-existent municipal jobs in Paris, where he was mayor from 1977 to 1995, effectively using the civic payroll to employ his own campaign staff.
He was excused from attending the trial after doctors said he was afflicted with "severe" neurological problems.
One of Chirac's lawyers, Georges Kiejman, said he is awaiting the court's decision "calmly". In a statement read at the trial, Chirac said he "did not commit any legal or moral offence".
The charges relate to 28 allegedly fictitious municipal jobs created in Paris and the suburb of Nanterre between 1990 and 1995, ahead of Chirac's successful 1995 presidential bid.
The charge sheet alleged that Chirac was the "inventor, author and beneficiary" of a conspiracy to use public funds to "support his political influence" and serve his own "interests and ambitions, or those of his party".
Several people were convicted in connection with the case in 2004, including former prime minister and current Foreign Minister Alain Juppé who was found guilty of mishandling public funds and given a suspended sentence.