School pupils have also promised to join the action with demonstrations outside schools in Paris and some other cities.
Metro and fast RER trains in the capital will suffer some delays, particularly on metro lines 5, 7, 9 and on the busy lines A and B of the RER.
Line A hopes to have three trains in four running while line B will have its service cut in half during morning and evening rush hour.
High-speed TGV trains will be disrupted with three out of four trains running on average across the network.
François Chérèque, head of the CFDT union, told Canal Plus on Monday that unions wanted to "send the government a message."
"We want to say that it is particularly unjust that salaried employees are being made to pay."
President Sarkozy's government announced plans in August to find €12 billion ($16.4 billion) of savings as part of the government's plan to cut the budget deficit to 5.7 percent of gross domestic product in 2011, eventually reaching the European Union target of 3 percent by 2013.
Schools will also be affected in the day of action as workers including teachers and canteen workers take action.
Pupils have also announced plans to strike, mainly outside establishments in Paris.
Victor Colombani, president of the national union of students, told BFM TV "education is one of the main victims" of the austerity plans.