Staff at the natural history museum in Blois, 160 kilometres southwest of Paris, discovered the exhibit was missing on Saturday morning following a break-in.
The head, weighing about 100 kilogrammes and dating back to the 19th century, had been dragged along the floor.
Museum curator Jean-Louis Pointal said it was the latest in a string of rhinoceros head thefts in recent months.
Thieves hit Rouen, France, in March, Liege in Belgium in June and the Belgian capital Brussels last week.
Rhinoceros horn is prized in China where it is said to have aphrodisiac properties.